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fighting ships of the world

UNITED STATES NAVY (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

AIRCRAFT CARRYING SHIPS

YORKTOWN aircraft carriers (1937-1941)

Yorktown 1941

No Name Builder Laid down Launched Comm Fate
CV5 Yorktown Newport News 21/5/1934 4/4/1936 30/9/1937 sunk 7/6/1942
CV6, 10/1952- CVA6, 8/1953- CVS6 Enterprise Newport News 16/7/1934 3/10/1936 12/5/1938 stricken 10/1956
CV8 Hornet Newport News 25/9/1939 14/12/1940 20/10/1941 sunk 24/10/1942
  

Displacement standard, t

19875

Displacement full, t

25484

Length, m

234.7 wl 246.6 oa 251.4 max by flight deck

Breadth, m

25.3 wl 33.4 oa

Draught, m

7.90 full load

No of shafts

4

Machinery

Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 9 Babcock & Wilcox boilers

Power, h. p.

120000

Max speed, kts

32.5

Fuel, t

oil 2754 - 4360

Endurance, nm (kts) 12000 (15)

Armour, mm

belt: 102 - 64 on 19mm plating, deck 38, bulkheads 102, CT: 102 sides, 51 roof

Armament

CV5: 8 x 1 - 127/38 Mk 12, 4 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 24 x 1 - 12.7/90, 96 aircraft (F4B, F2F, F3F fighters, F11C, BFC, BF2C Goshawk fighters - dive bombers, BG, SBU, SBC Helldiver dive bombers, BM dive / torpedo bombers, TBD Devastator torpedo bombers, T4M, TG torpedo bombers - reconnaissance planes, O3U, SU, SOC Seagull reconnaissance planes)

CV6: 8 x 1 - 127/38 Mk 12, 4 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 24 x 1 - 12.7/90, 96 aircraft (F2F, F3F fighters, F11C, BFC, BF2C Goshawk fighters - dive bombers, BG, SBU, SBC Helldiver, SB2U Vindicator, BT dive bombers, BM dive / torpedo bombers, TBD Devastator torpedo bombers, O3U, SU, SOC Seagull reconnaissance planes)

CV8: 8 x 1 - 127/38 Mk 12, 4 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 24 x 1 - 12.7/90, 96 aircraft (F2A Buffalo, F4F Wildcat fighters, SBC Helldiver, SB2U Vindicator, SBD Dauntless dive bombers, TBD Devastator torpedo bombers, SOC Seagull reconnaissance planes)

Sensors CV8: SC radar

Complement

2175 (1942)

 Aircraft facilities (fd - 6,835 m², ha - 3,194 m² / 16,773 m³): Flight deck: 244.6 x 29.9 m (248.3x29.9m on CV8). Hangar: 166.4 x 19.2 x 5.25 m. There were 3 elevators (14.6 x 13.7 m, 7.7 t) and 3 catapults H 2 (2 flight deck and 1 doubled athwartships catapult in hangar). Aircraft fuel stowage: 673 900 l. 

Year fighters dive bombers torpedo bombers reconnaissance
6/1938 (Enterprise) 20 F3F 21 SBC Helldiver, 13 BT 20 TBD Devastator 2 O3U
6/1942 (Yorktown) 25 F4F Wildcat 37 SBD Dauntless 13 TBD Devastator ---
6/1942 (Enterprise) 27 F4F Wildcat 37 SBD Dauntless 14 TBD Devastator ---
6/1942 (Hornet) 27 F4F Wildcat 37 SBD Dauntless 15 TBD Devastator ---
6/1944 (Enterprise) 31 F6F Hellcat, 3 F4U Corsair 23 SBD Dauntless 15 TBF Avenger ---

Ship project history: After order of Ranger remaining American aircraft carriers, according to the Washington Treaty, could had 55000t summary displacement. In this limit it was possible to built three 18500t ships or two 27000t. Naval command would prefer to have three carriers, but as it has shown by world experience, limitation of dimensions of carriers sharply reduced their battle capabilities. Eventually they were stopped on a compromise variant: it has been decided to built two 20700t ships and one more (future CV7 Wasp) with smaller size. CV5 and 6 have been laid down in 1934, four years later, after cancellation of Washington Treaty, Congress has made a decision about building of the third ship of class, CV8.

Yorktown design has appeared much more successfully than predecessor (Ranger), harmoniously combining offensive and defensive possibilities. The hangar has been designed for huge air group (96 planes at the moment of designing, subsequently because of the increased sizes of aircrafts their number was decreased). Besides two catapults on a flight deck there was third one a deck lower: with its help it was possible to launch aircrafts directly from a hangar through special windows in sides. Besides, original idea has not justified, and the third catapult in 1942 was removed.

Carriers possessed by quite good armour protection similar Washington cruisers. Unlike Ranger, Yorktown received underwater protection. However, last can resist from an explosion of a torpedo with 180kg TNT warhead, while battleships were capable to sustain explosion of 320kg TNT.

Ship protection:  There was an armoured belt, connected with armoured main deck. 

Modernizations:  1940, Yorktown: + CXAM radar

1940, Enterprise: + CXAM-1 radar

summer 1942, Hornet: - SC radar; + CXAM radar

mid-1942, Yorktown, Hornet: - 24 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 24 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2x Mk 4 radars

mid-1942, Enterprise: - 24 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 32 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2x Mk 4 radars

8/1942, Enterprise: + 6 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

8/1942, Hornet: + 8 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

10/1943, Enterprise: bulges were fitted, breadth by wl increased to 29.1m, displacement to 24128/29882t and fuel stowage to 6511t. - 4 x 4 - 28/75, CXAM-1, 2x Mk 4 radars; + 10 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 10 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SC-2, SK, SM, 2x Mk 12/22 radars

12/1944, Enterprise: - 48 x 1 - 20/70; + 1 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 5 x 2 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 16 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 4

1/1946, CV6 Enterprise: 8 x 1 - 127/38 Mk 21, 10 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 48 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 3 catapults, 96 aircraft, SC-2, SK, SM, 2 x Mk 12/22 radars

Naval service: Yorktown during battle in Coral sea 7/5/1942 was damaged by hit of Japanese 250kg bomb. She was urgently repaired in Pearl Harbour and has had time to participate in battle at Midway 4/6/1942. She was badly damaged by Japanese carrier aircraft (Hiryu air group) (has received 3 bomb and 2 torpedo hits). At day 6/6/1942 she was hit by two more torpedoes from Japanese submarine I168 and at morning of next day sunk (3036'N, 17634'W). Enterprise during battle at Eastern Solomon islands 24/8/1942) received serious damages as result of hits of three 250kg air bombs and three close misses, repaired till the mid-October, 1942; in battle at Santa Cruz islands 26/10/1942 she has received hits of three 250kg air bombs and repaired till the mid-November, 1942; at supporting of Okinawa beaching 14/5/1945 she was damaged by kamikaze and never entered service till the end of war. Enterprise was laid up 2/1947 and never commissioned later. Hornet in battle at Santa Cruz islands 26/10/1942 was badly damaged by Japanese aircraft (Shokaku and Zuikaku air groups) (hits of two torpedoes, four bombs and two knocked down aircrafts), after hit of one more torpedo and several bombs she was abandoned by crew and torpedoed by destroyers of escort, however remained afloat. On the night 27/10/1942 wreck of Hornet has been discovered and sunk by Japanese destroyers (0838'S, 16643'E).

Hornet 1942

Ivan Gogin, 2014-15