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fighting ships of the world

UNITED STATES NAVY (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

CAPITAL SHIPS & MONITORS

SOUTH DAKOTA battleships (1942)

Alabama 1942

Alabama 1944

Massachusetts 1944

South Dakota 1945

No Name Builder Laid down Launched Comm Fate
BB57 South Dakota New York SB, Camden 5/7/1939 7/6/1941 20/3/1942 stricken 6/1962
BB58 Indiana Newport News 20/11/1939 21/11/1941 30/4/1942 stricken 6/1962
BB59 Massachusetts Bethlehem, Quincy 20/7/1939 23/9/1941 12/5/1942 stricken 6/1962, preserved
BB60 Alabama Norfolk N Yd, Portsmouth 1/2/1940 16/2/1942 16/8/1942 stricken 6/1962, preserved
  

Displacement standard, t

37970

Displacement full, t

44519

Length, m

203.0 wl 207.3 oa

Breadth, m

33.0

Draught, m

10.7 full load

No of shafts

4

Machinery

General Electric geared steam turbines, 8 Babcock & Wilcox boilers

Power, h. p.

130000

Max speed, kts

27.5

Fuel, t

oil 6959

Endurance, nm (kts) 15000 (15)

Armour, mm

belt: 310 on 22mm plating, lower belt: 310 - 25 on 22mm plating, deck: 146 - 152, upper deck: 38, splinter deck: 19, bulkheads: 287, barbettes: 287 - 439, turrets: 457 face, 184 crown, 241 sides, 305 rear, CT: 406 sides, 184 roof

Armament

BB57: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 8 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 12, 7 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 16 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes (OS2U, SOC, SO3C)

BB58: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 10 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 12, 6 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 16 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes (OS2U, SOC, SO3C)

BB59: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 10 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 12, 6 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 35 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes (OS2U, SOC, SO3C)

BB60: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 10 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 12, 6 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 22 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes (OS2U, SOC, SO3C)

Sensors

BB57: SC, SG, Mk 3, 2 x Mk 8, 4 x Mk 4 radars

BB58 - 60: SC, SG, Mk 3, 2 x Mk 8, 4 x Mk 4 radars

Complement

1793

Ship project history: In the project of battleships (future South Dakota class) which should been built under the 1939 programme, designers received a task to ensure protection against fire of 406mm guns, correcting the basic lack of the ships of the previous North Carolina class. Thus it was required to be stowed in 35000t standard displacement, avoiding appreciable fall of speed. For the decision of so complex task a challenge it was necessary to begin designing actually from zero, having borrowed from previous project only structure and the scheme of armament arrangement. Designing has begun in 1937. A new constructed hull which became much shorter at the same breadth. At the expense of more cramped machinery the total machinery spaces length managed to be shrunk to 17m, that, in turn, has allowed to decrease protected spaces length. Though the thickness of the armour, in comparison with predecessors, has increased slightly, application of the new scheme of protection ensured much better protection. Main belt (310mm armour on 19mm plating of STS steel) placed sloped under an angle 19░ outside deeply in the hull and was stretched down to the bottom, gradually tapering to 25mm and connecting with anti-torpedo bulkhead (It was supposed that new underwater protection will sustain explosion of a torpedo with a charge of 317kg TNT). The external side (19mm) thus fulfilled a role of the APC destroyer. The thickness and an arrangement of armour decks differed from accepted on North Carolina class, only main deck was hardly more thickly a little. As a whole the new scheme has appeared more reliable, than on predecessors, and ensured immune zone under fire of 406mm guns in 90-150 cables interval (in 4 times more widely, than on North Carolina class).

The short hull with smaller aspect ratio has demanded installation of more powerful, than on North Carolina class, machinery, but speed has all the same fallen on half-knot.

It was originally supposed to order two ships (┬┬57 and ┬┬58), having changed with ┬┬59 to the new design (the future Iowa class), however in June, 1938 the decision on a building of two more 35000t battleships has followed, as design works on a fast battleship went more slowly, than it was expected.

The lead-ship of a class (┬┬57) should become flagship and differed from a remaining three by conning tower of the big sizes. Because of the increased upper weight number of 127mm mounts on her have shrunk to eight (partly it was indemnified by increase of 28mm MGs number).

Provided by the project 28mm MGs during fitting out were replaced by quadrupled 40mm Boforses, and 12.7mm MGs by 20mm Oerlikons.

Ship protection: 113.4m inner belt, inclined at 19░ to vertical, had 3.2m height and was 310mm thick (on 51mm cement layer and 22mm plating). 19░inclined lower belt was connected with main belt and tapered from 310mm at upper edge to 152mm 2.1m lower than it and then to 25mm at lower edge. Belt was connected with end barbettes by bulkheads. Thickness of fore bulkhead was 287mm, but at lower part of bulkhead it decreased to 25mm (as lower belt). Aft bulkhead has 287mm thickness only to one level under main deck, its lower part was only 16mm thick but it was connected with steering gear belt. Steering gear compartment had 343mm 19░inclined belt and 287mm bulkhead expanded up to lower (splinter) deck. Flat main armour deck was connected with upper edge of belt and was 154 (near sides)-146mm (near center line) over citadel. One level higher there was 38mm upper deck. Its thickness decreased to 25-19 mm fwd from No1 barbette. One level lower was flat 19mm splinter deck. This deck extended aft from No3 barbette and was 157-121mm over steering gear belt. Main gun turrets had 457mm faces, 305mm sides, 300mm rears and 184mm crowns. Barbettes over main deck were 294mm at center line and 440mm at sides. They consisted from two rings (73mm outer and 37mm inner) under main deck. CT had 406mm sides, 373mm fwd and aft parts, 178mm roof and 102mm deck. 5.45m deep underwater protection consisted from 4 compartments and could resist exploding of 317kg TNT. Inner main and lower belts were used as 3rd longitudinal bulkhead.

Modernizations: 10/1942, South Dakota: - 2 x 4 - 28/75, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 4 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 20 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

11/1942, Indiana: + 4 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

12/1942, Massachusetts: + 4 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 13 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

1943, all: - SC, 4 x Mk 4 radars; + SG (second), SK, 4 x Mk 12/22 radars

1/1943, Indiana: + 37 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

2/1943, South Dakota: - 5 x 4 - 28/75, 1 x 1 - 20/70; + 13 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

2/1943, Indiana: + 2 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

2/1943,Massachusetts: + 2 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 13 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

2/1943, Alabama: + 4 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

5/1943, Alabama: + 38 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

9/1943, Massachusetts: - 18 x 1 - 20/70

11/1943, Alabama: + 2 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

12/1943, Indiana: + 7 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

1944, all: - SK, Mk 3 radar; + SK-2, SU, Mk 27 radar

4/1944, Indiana: + 3 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

7/1944, Indiana: - 16 x 1 - 20/70; + 4 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 4

10/1944, Massachusetts: - 17 x 1 - 20/70; + 1 x 4 - 20/70 Mk 4, 1 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 4

12/1944, South Dakota: + 37 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

12/1944, Indiana: - 3 x 1 - 20/70

12/1944, Massachusetts: + 6 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 6 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

12/1944, Alabama: - 8 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

3/1945, South Dakota: + 5 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

1945, all: - 2 x Mk 8 radars; + 2 x Mk 13 radars

summer 1945, Massachusetts: - 1 x 1 - 20/70

summer 1945, Alabama: + 4 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

1/1946, BB57 South Dakota: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 8 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 28, 17 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 77 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes, 2 x SG, SK-2, SU, 2 x Mk 13, 4 x Mk 12/22, Mk 27 radars

1/1946, BB58 Indiana: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 10 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 28, 12 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 4 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 24, 44 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes, 2 x SG, SK-2, SU, 2 x Mk 13, 4 x Mk 12/22, Mk 27 radars

1/1946, BB59 Massachusetts: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 10 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 28, 18 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 1 x 4 - 20/70 Mk 15, 1 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 24, 31 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes, 2 x SG, SK-2, SU, 2 x Mk 13, 4 x Mk 12/22, Mk 27 radars

1/1946, BB60 Alabama: 3 x 3 - 406/45 Mk 6, 10 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 28, 12 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 56 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes, 2 x SG, SK-2, SU, 2 x Mk 13, 4 x Mk 12/22, Mk 27 radars

Naval service: South Dakota 15/11/1942 was damaged by Japanese ships in battle at Guadalcanal and repaired till February, 1943. 19/6/1944 she was again damaged by Japanese aircraft (1 bombing hit) and repaired till August, 1944.

South Dakota 1943

ę Ivan Gogin, 2014-15