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fighting ships of the world

UNITED STATES NAVY (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

CAPITAL SHIPS & MONITORS

NEW YORK battleships (1914)

 Texas 1914

No Name Builder Laid down Launched Comm Fate
BB34 New York New York N Yd, Brooklyn 11/9/1911 30/10/1912 15/4/1914 sunk as target 8/7/1948
BB35 Texas Newport News 17/4/1911 18/5/1912 12/3/1914 stricken 4/1948, preserved
  

Displacement normal, t

27000

Displacement full, t

28367

Length, m

172.3 wl 174.7 oa

Breadth, m

29.1

Draught, m

8.70

No of shafts

2

Machinery

VTE, 14 Babcock & Wilcox boilers

Power, h. p.

28100

Max speed, kts

21

Fuel, t

coal 2850 + oil 400

Endurance, nm(kts) 7684(12)

Armour, mm

belt: 305 - 254, upper belt: 280 - 229, casemate: 165, deck: 51, barbettes: 305 / 254, turrets: 356 (face), CT: 305

Armament

5 x 2 - 356/45 Mk I, 21 x 1 - 127/51 Mk VIII, 4 - 533 TT (beam)

Complement

1042

Ship project history: This was the 10-356mm design which had originally been developed in 1908-9 as an alternative to Wyoming. The prototype 356mm/45 gun was test-fired in January 1910, and this design approved in March. Plans for two-shaft (Curtis) and four-shaft (Parsons) turbine installations were developed, but trials of North Dakota appeared to show that turbines were generally unsatisfactory: it was estimated that the new ship would be able to make only about 5605nm at 12kts on turbines, compared to 7060 with reciprocating engines. The former figure would be insufficient to take the ship from the US West Coast to the Philippines. The General Board therefore chose reciprocating engines, even though it was aware that they had no great potential for further development.

Ship protection: Main 122m belt had 2.44m height (1.3m over and 1.14m under waterline) abreast citadel was 305mm thick at upper part tapering to 254mm at lower edge. Belt was connected with end barbettes by 254mm fore and 280mm aft bulkheads. There was narrow 229mm belt between barbette No5 and stern. There was upper belt, 280mm at lower and 229mm at upper edges, it was closed by 280/229mm bulkheads. Casemate had 165mm armour and connected with barbettes No2 and 3 by diagonal 165mm bulkheads. Funnel uptakes had 165mm protection. Flat armoured deck connected with upper edge of main belt and was 51mm over boilers and 76mm over magazines. Main deck over turbines (between No3 and 4 barbettes) was unarmoured. This deck had 38mm thickness from citadel to stem. It was 51mm aft from citadel and was strengthened over steering gear up to 76mm with 76mm slopes. Battery deck was connected with upper edge of upper belt and was 25mm between No2 and 5 barbettes, increasing to 44mm under casemate. Main gun turrets had 305mm faces, 203mm sides and rears and 102mm crowns. Barbettes were 305mm at upper and 127mm at lower edges. CT had 102mm roof. Underwater protection was 7.1m deep. There was 38mm longitudinal bulkhead.

Modernizations: 1916, both: + 2 x 1 - 76/52 Mk X

1918, both: + 4 x 1 - 76/52 Mk X

1919, both: + 2 x 1 - 76/52 Mk X

early 1920, both: - 5 x 1 - 127/51

(1927, Norfolk NYd) New York; (1925 - 1927, Norfolk NYd) Texas were modernized as follows. New bulges and boilers were fitted, horizontal armour was strengthened, part of secondary guns was moved one deck up.

New York 1942

Displacement standard, t

27000

Displacement full, t

31924

Length, m

172.2 wl 174.7 oa

Breadth, m

32.3

Draught, m

9.19 full load

No of shafts

2

Machinery

VTE, 6 Bureau Express boilers

Power, h. p.

28100

Max speed, kts

21

Fuel, t

oil 2810 (4600 max)

Endurance, nm(kts) 15400(10)

Armour, mm

belt: 305 - 254, deck: 88 - 114, barbettes: 305 - 127, turrets: 356 (face), CT: 305

Armament

5 x 2 - 356/45 Mk 8, 16 x 1 - 127/51 Mk 7/8, 8 x 1 - 76/52 Mk10/18, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90, 1 catapult, 3 seaplanes (UO)

Complement

1290

 Ship protection after modernization: Main 122m belt had 2.44m height (1.3m over and 1.14m under waterline) abreast citadel was 305mm thick at upper part tapering to 254mm at lower edge. Belt was connected with end barbettes by 254mm fore and 280mm aft bulkheads. There was narrow 229mm belt between barbette No5 and stern. There was upper belt, 280mm at lower and 229mm at upper edges, it was closed by 280/229mm bulkheads. Casemate had 165mm armour and connected with barbettes No2 and 3 by diagonal 165mm bulkheads. Funnel uptakes had 165mm protection. Old flat armoured deck (now splinter deck) connected with upper edge of main belt and was 51mm over boilers and 76mm over magazines. Main deck over turbines (between No3 and 4 barbettes) was unarmoured. This deck had 38mm thickness from citadel to stem. It was 51mm aft from citadel and was strengthened over steering gear up to 120mm with 76mm slopes. New main deck (old battery deck) was connected with upper edge of upper belt and was 114mm over magazines and turbines and 132mm over boilers. Main gun turrets had 305mm faces, 203mm sides and rears and 146mm crowns. Barbettes were 305mm at upper and 127mm at lower edges. CT had 146mm roof. Underwater protection was 9.2m deep. There was 38mm longitudinal bulkhead.

12/1938, Texas: + XAF radar

1/1939, New York: + CXZ radar

early 1941, both: maximal angle of main guns elevation was increased up to 30.

mid-1941, both: - 6 x 1 - 127/51; + 2 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20, 4 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1

early 1942, Texas: - XAF radar; + SG, SK, FC (Mk 3) radars

early 1942, New York: - CXZ radar; + SG, SK, FC (Mk 3) radars

8/1942, both: - 10 x 1 - 127/51; + 4 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 42 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

1943, both: - 4 x 4 - 28/75; + 4 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

1944, both: - 4 x 4 - 28/75; + 4 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

autumn 1944, both: + 2 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 1 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2 x Mk 19 radars

1/1946, BB34 New York, BB35 Texas: 5 x 2 - 356/45 Mk 8, 10 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 11, 10 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 1 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 24, 44 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90, 1 catapult, 3 seaplanes, SG, SK, FC (Mk 3), 2 x Mk 19 radars

Naval service: The first US battleship AA guns were turret-top 76mm guns mounted aboard Texas in 1916. Texas was also the first US battleship with flying-off platforms for aircraft, fitted in British waters, possibly as early as March 1918. She flew off her first airplane at Guantanamo Bay (Cuba) in March 1919. Both ships served with 6th Battle Squadron, Grand Fleet, during World War One. New York went straight to Vera Cruz on commissioning, arriving on 4 May 1914.

    During support of Normandy landing Texas 26/6/1944 received some hits of 280- and 240mm shells, from German coast batteries and repaired 1 month. New York was sunk as target during nuclear tests near Bikini.

 

New York 1914

 

New York 1942

Ivan Gogin, 2014-15