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fighting ships of the world

UNITED STATES NAVY (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

CAPITAL SHIPS & MONITORS

NEVADA battleships (1916)

Nevada 1916

No Name Builder Laid down Launched Comm Fate
BB36 Nevada Fore River, Quincy 4/11/1912 11/7/1914 11/3/1916 target for nuclear tests 2/1946
BB37 Oklahoma New York SB, Camden 26/10/1912 23/3/1914 2/5/1916 sunk 7/12/1941
  

Displacement normal, t

27500

Displacement full, t

28400

Length, m

175.3 wl 177.7 oa

Breadth, m

29.1

Draught, m

8.70

No of shafts

2

Machinery

BB36: Curtis steam turbines, 12 Yarrow boilers

BB37: VTE, 12 Babcock & Wilcox boilers

Power, h. p.

BB36: 26500

BB37: 24800

Max speed, kts

20.5

Fuel, t

oil 2030

Endurance, nm(kts) 5195(12)

Armour, mm

belt: 343 - 203, bulkheads: 330 - 203, deck: 76, (63 aft), splinter deck: 51 - 25, barbettes: 330, turrets: 457 (triple) or 406 (twin) face, 254 - 229 sides, 127 crowns, 229 rear, CT: 406 sides, 203 roof

Armament

2 x 3 - 356/45 Mk I, 2 x 2 - 356/45 Mk I, 21 x 1 - 127/51 Mk VIII, 2 - 533 TT (beam)

Complement

864

Ship project history: This was a revolutionary design, introducing 'all or nothing' protection. Since armour-piercing shells did not burst when penetrating thin plating, the designers reasoned that there was nothing to be gained from using thin armour which would serve only to detonate shells. Better to choose either the thickest armour, which would not be penetrated, or no armour at all; hence the name. The Nevadas were the first ships designed to General Board Characteristics (staff requirements), and they reflected the new demands of very long-range battle: heavy deck armour and highly centralised fire control.

    In the previous New York class, the central fire control station had to be placed above the relatively thin protective deck, since all of the hull volume below that deck was occupied by machinery and magazines. It was, therefore, enclosed in light splinter armour. In theory, shells would strike the 'lower casemate' and burst before they could reach the 'central', and its thin armour would defeat the splinters. As expected battle ranges increased, however, shells might well pass over this upper bell, to strike the 'central' directly. The first step in the Nevada design, then, was to move the main armoured deck to the top of the upper belt, with a splinter deck placed below it to protect the machinery and magazines from shells bursting after penetrating the main armoured deck. It followed that the upper and lower belts might as well be merged into a single armour belt. Similarly, the upper casemate armour, which in earlier designs had protected the off-side secondary guns and the uptakes, was abandoned in favour of heavy casemate armour. Armour could also be used more efficiently, because the main battery was concentrated into four rather than five turrets.

    At the same time, oil fuel was introduced, after tests in Delaware. Its advantages includes a reduction in the engine-room complement, and a consequent saving in berthing. However, there was no longer any coal protection to the machinery spaces, and a new form of underwater protection was required. In fact no truly satisfactory type of underwater protection was developed until 1915, in the Tennessee class.

    These two ships were built with competitive powerplants, turbine in Nevada and recipropating in Oklahoma.

Ship protection: 122m belt had 5.3m height and was 343mm thick at upper part tapering to 203mm at lower edge. Belt was connected with end barbettes by 320mm bulkheads. There was 2.6m in height 203mm belt at 18.3m length aft from aft bulkhead, protecting steering gear, it was closed aft by 229mm bulkhead. Flat main armour deck was connected with upper edge of belt and was 89mm over citadel. One level lower was 38mm splinter deck with 51mm slopes, slopes were connected with lower edge of belt. This deck was 63mm thick aft from citadel, protecting steering gear. Main gun turrets had 457mm (triple) or 406mm (twin) faces, 254-229mm sides, 229mm rears and 127mm crowns. Barbettes were 330mm over and 114mm under main deck. CT had 406mm sides and 127mm roof. Underwater protection was 3.0m deep. There was 38mm longitudinal bulkhead.

Modernizations: 1916, both: + 2 x 1 - 76/52 Mk X

1919 - 1920, both: + 6 x 1 - 76/52 Mk X

late 1922, both: + 1 catapult with 1 seaplane (MO or UO)

(8/1927 - 1/1930, Norfolk NYd) Nevada, (9/1927 - 7/1929, Philadelphia NYd) Oklahoma were modernized as follows. New machinery and boilers were fitted, horizontal armour was strengthened, part of secondary guns was moved one deck up. Maximal main guns elevation angle was increased up to 30.

Oklahoma 1941

Oklahoma 1941

Nevada 1945

Displacement standard, t

29067

Displacement full, t

31706

Length, m

175.6 wl 177.7 oa

Breadth, m

32.9

Draught, m

9.04 full load

No of shafts

2

Machinery

BB36: Parsons geared steam turbines, 6 Bureau Express boilers

BB37: VTE, 6 Bureau Express boilers

Power, h. p.

25000

Max speed, kts

20.5

Fuel, t

oil 3148 (6274 max)

Endurance, nm(kts)

15700(10)

Armour, mm

belt: 343 - 203, bulkheads: 330 - 203, deck: 127, splinter deck: 51 - 25, barbettes: 330, turrets: 457 (triple) or 406 (twin) face, 229 sides, CT: 406

Armament

2 x 3 - 356/45 Mk 9, 2 x 2 - 356/45 Mk 9, 12 x 1 - 127/51 Mk 8, 8 x 1 - 127/25 Mk 10/11/13, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes (OJ, O2U)

Complement

1374

Ship protection after modernization: 122m belt had 5.3m height and was 343mm thick at upper part tapering to 203mm at lower edge. Belt was connected with end barbettes by 320mm bulkheads. There was 2.6m in height 203mm belt at 18.3m length aft from aft bulkhead, protecting steering gear, it was closed aft by 229mm bulkhead. Flat main armour deck was connected with upper edge of belt and was 127mm over citadel. One level lower was 38mm splinter deck with 76mm slopes, slopes were connected with lower edge of belt. This deck was 63mm thick aft from citadel, protecting steering gear. Main gun turrets had 457mm (triple) or 406mm (twin) faces, 254-229mm sides, 229mm rears and 127mm crowns. Barbettes were 330mm over and 114mm under main deck. CT had 406mm sides and 203mm roof. Underwater protection was 5.8m deep. There was 38mm longitudinal bulkhead.

Modernizations: 1941, Oklahoma: + 4 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20

(12/1941 - 10/1942), Nevada: - 12 x 1 - 127/51, 8 x 1 - 127/25, 1 catapult; + 8 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 12, 8 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 16 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SC, SG, Mk 3, 4 x Mk 4 radars; full displacement was 35400 t

summer 1944, Nevada: + 1 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 22 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4

11/1944, Nevada: - 33 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon; + 1 x 4 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 20 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 4

1/1946, BB36 Nevada: 2 x 3 - 356/45 Mk 9, 2 x 2 - 356 Mk 9, 8 x 2 - 127/38 Mk 28, 10 x 4 - 40/60 Mk 2, 20 x 2 - 20/70 Mk 24, 5 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 catapults, 3 seaplanes, SC, SG, Mk 3, 4 x Mk 4 radars

Naval service: Oklahoma was sunk in Pearl Harbor by B5N2 bombers from Akagi: she has received 4 torpedoes, overturned and sunk. Later, 6/11/1943 wreck was salvaged and used till 1947 as hulk. Nevada 7/12/1941 was badly damaged during Japanese aircraft raid to Pearl Harbour; she received hits of one air torpedo and 2-3 bombs and ran aground, she was salvaged 12/2/1942 and repaired till the beginning of spring of 1943.

 

Oklahoma 1930

 

 

Nevada 1944

Ivan Gogin, 2014-15