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fighting ships of the world

ROYAL NAVY - UNITED KINGDOM

CRUISERS

KENT heavy cruisers (1928)

Canberra 1940

       Kent 1944

Cumberland 1954

Name No Yard No Builder Laid down Launched Comp Fate
Berwick 65 616 Fairfield, Govan 15/9/1924 30/3/1926 15/2/1928 sold for BU 1948
Cornwall 56   Devonport DYd 9/10/1924 11/3/1926 8/5/1928 sunk 5/4/1942
Cumberland 57 - C57 618 Vickers-Armstrong, Barrow 18/10/1924 16/3/1926 23/1/1928 sold for BU 1959
Kent 54   Chatham DYd 15/11/1924 16/3/1926 22/6/1928 sold for BU 1948
Suffolk 55   Portsmouth DYd 30/9/1924 16/2/1926 31/5/1928 sold for BU 1948
Australia (RAN)   512 John Brown, Clydebank 26/8/1925 17/3/1927 24/4/1928 sold for BU 1955
Canberra (RAN)   513 John Brown, Clydebank 9/9/1925 31/5/1927 10/7/1928 sunk 9/8/1942

 

 

 

Displacement standard, t

9750 - 9870 (about 10900 finally)

Displacement full, t

13400 - 13540 (14490 - 14910 finally)

Length, m

179.8 pp 192.0 - 192.9 oa

Breadth, m

20.8

Draught, m

6.25 deep load (6.71 - 6.88 finally)

No of shafts

4

Machinery

Parsons geared steam turbines, 8 Admiralty 3-drum boilers

Berwick, Australia, Canberra: Brown-Curtis geared steam turbines, 8 Admiralty 3-drum boilers

Power, h. p.

80000

Max speed, kn

31.5

Fuel, t

oil 3200 - 3400

Endurance, nm(kts) 13300(12)
Armour, mm

box protection to magazines: 111 - 25, belt: 25, bulkheads: 25, barbettes: 25, turrets: 25, deck: 38 - 25

Armament

4 x 2 - 203/50 Mk VIII, 4 x 1 - 102/45 QF Mk V, 4 x 1 - 47/40 Hotchkiss Mk I, 4 x 1 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk II, 2 x 4 - 533 TT

Complement

685 - 710

Ship project history: First British cruisers designed according to limitations established for cruisers by Washington conference (10 000t standard displacement, no more han 203mm main guns). In comparison with the similar ships of other navies they were not so fast and protected however possessed the big endurance and good seaworthiness. They were intended, first of all, for protection of sea communications and hunting for raiders, instead of for operations with main forces. Five ships were built by 1925 program. Two more ships were ordered by Australia.

Hull form in the cross-section plan resembled one accepted on last battlecruisers of Royal Navy (Courageous and Hood): above a waterline it was trapezoidal, transferred in blisters below. Ships had original box-shaped armour protection concentrated round the vital places. Main guns had maximal elevation angle 70 .

In 1934 the design of modernization of class has been made. According to it it was supposed to equip them with narrow armoured belt on waterline.

Protection: Underwater protection (bulges) was 1.6m in deep on British and 0.76m on Australian ships. Magazines were protected by 111 (102mm armour on 9mm plating)-25mm sides and 76-25mm platform deck. Machinery was protected by 25mm bulkheads and 32mm deck. Steering gear has 38-25mm horizontal protection.

Modernizations: 1931 - 1932, British ships: + 1 catapult S-II-L, 1 Flycatcher (later Osprey) seaplane

1933, Kent: + 2 x 1 - 102/45 QF Mk V

1934, all: + 2 x 4 - 12.7/62

1935, Australia: + 1 catapult S-II-L, 1 Osprey seaplane

7/1936, Cumberland: new 114mm belt 1.8m in height abreast machinery and transmitting station was fitted. 102mm internal plating was added to the sides of boiler room fan compartments. One deck was cut down abaft "Y" turret. New catapult D-II-H and 2 hangars for Walrus seaplanes were fitted; - 2 x 1 - 102/45, 4 x 1 - 40/39, 2 x 4 - 533 TT; + 2 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVII, 2 x 4 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, (2 seaplanes instead of 1)

1937, Suffolk: new 114mm belt 1.8m in height abreast machinery and transmitting station was fitted. 102mm internal plating was added to the sides of boiler room fan compartments. One deck was cut down abaft "Y" turret. New catapult D-II-H and 2 hangars for Walrus seaplanes were fitted; - 4 x 1 - 102/45, 4 x 1 - 40/39, 2 x 4 - 533 TT; + 3 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVII, 2 x 4 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, (2 seaplanes instead of 1)

1937 - 1939, Berwick, Cornwall: new 114mm belt 1.8m in height abreast machinery and transmitting station was fitted. 102mm internal plating was added to the sides of boiler room fan compartments. New catapult D-II-H and 2 hangars for Walrus seaplanes were fitted; - 4 x 1 - 102/45, 4 x 1 - 40/39, 2 x 4 - 533 TT; + 4 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVI, 2 x 8 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, (2 seaplanes instead of 1)

1938, Kent: new 114mm belt 1.8m in height abreast machinery and transmitting station was fitted. 102mm internal plating was added to the sides of boiler room fan compartments. New catapult E-IV-H for Walrus seaplane was fitted. - 6 x 1 - 102/45, 4 x 1 - 40/39; + 4 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVI, 2 x 8 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII

1935 - 1939, Australia: new 114mm belt 1.8m in height abreast machinery and transmitting station was fitted. 102mm internal plating was added to the sides of boiler room fan compartments. New catapult E-IV-H for Walrus seaplane was fitted; + 1 x 4 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII

1938, Cumberland: - 2 x 2 - 102/45, 2 x 1 - 102/45; + 4 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVI

1939, all: - 4 x 1 - 47/40

12/1940, Australia: - 4 x 1 - 102/45, 2 x 4 - 533 TT; + 4 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVI, type 286 radar

early 1941, Canberra: + 4 x 1 - 102/45 QF Mk V, radar

2/1941, Suffolk: - 3 x 2 - 102/45; + 4 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVI, 4 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 279, 285 radars

6/1941, Berwick: + type 281, 284 radars

9/1941, Kent: + 6 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 281, 284, 285 radars

10/1941, Berwick: + 5 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

10/1941, Cumberland: + 5 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 273, 281, 285 radars

6/1942, Suffolk: - 2 x 4 - 12.7/62, type 279 radar; + 4 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 273, 281 radars

6/1942, Canberra: - 4 x 1 - 40/39; + 2 x 8 - 4/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, 5 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

8/1942, Berwick: - catapult and seaplanes, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62; + 6 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 273 radar

10/1942, Australia: - 1 x 4 - 40/39; + 2 x 8 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII

11/1942, Kent: - catapult and seaplanes, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62; + 6 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

2/1943, Cumberland: - 1 x 1 - 20/70, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62; + 5 x 2 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

2/1943, Suffolk: - catapult and seaplanes, 2 x 4 - 40/39, 5 x 1 - 20/70; + 2 x 8 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, 5 x 2 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

9/1943, Kent: - 6 x 1 - 20/70; + 3 x 2 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

10/1943, Berwick: - 2 x 8 - 40/39, 7 x 1 - 20/70, type 281 radar; + 2 x 4 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, 7 x 2 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type281B radar

late 1943, Australia: - 4 x 1 - 40/39, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62, type 286 radar; + 7 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 273, 281 radars

3/1944, Australia: - catapult and seaplanes, 7 x 1 - 20/70; + 7 x 2 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

4/1944, Suffolk: + 3 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

2/1945, Australia: - 1 x 2 - 203/50; + 2 x 8 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk VIII, 2 x 4 - 40/56 Bofors Mk 1/2, 2 x 2 - 40/56 Bofors Mk 1/2, 2 x 1 - 40/56 Bofors Mk 1/2, type 284, 285 radars

late 1945, Cumberland: + 2 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV

late 1945, Australia: - 7 x 2 - 20/70

1/1946, Berwick: 4 x 2 - 203/50 Mk I, 4 x 2 - 102/45 Mk XIX, 2 x 4 - 40/39 Mk VII, 7 x 2 - 20/70 Mk V, 4 x 1 - 20/70 Mk III

1/1946, Cumberland: 4 x 2 - 203/50 Mk I, 4 x 2 - 102/45 Mk XIX, 2 x 4 - 40/39 Mk VII, 5 x 2 - 20/70 Mk V, 6 x 1 - 20/70 Mk III, 1 catapult, 2 seaplanes

1/1946, Kent: 4 x 2 - 203/50 Mk I, 4 x 2 - 102/45 Mk XIX, 2 x 8 - 40/39 Mk VIA, 3 x 2 - 20/70 Mk V, 6 x 1 - 20/70 Mk III, 2 x 4 - 533 TT

1/1946, Suffolk: 4 x 2 - 203/50 Mk I, 4 x 2 - 102/45 Mk XIX, 2 x 8 - 40/39 Mk VIA, 5 x 2 - 20/70 Mk V, 6 x 1 - 20/70 Mk III

Naval service: Suffolk was damaged by direct hit of 1000kg bomb 17/4/1940 and repaired 10 months. Kent 17/9/1940 was damaged by air torpedo and repaired one year. Cornwall was sunk by the Japanese carrier aircraft (D3A1 divng bombers from Akagi, Hiryu and Soryu) S of Ceylon 5/4/1942 (9 direct bomb hits). Canberra was demolished by gunfire of Japanese cruisers Chokai, Aoba, Kako, Furutaka and Kinugasa in battle off Savo 9/8/1942 and sunk in 7 hours.

    In 1949 - 1951 Cumberland was converted to test ship. New lattice foremast and new sensors were fitted. Ship was rearmed and carried various armament for test. one (later 2) single 114/45mm , twin 40/60mm Bofors STAAG were mounted in various times. The ship had 1 twin 76/70mm Mk6 mounting from 1953 and additionally 1 twin 152/50mm automatic Mk26 later.

Canberra 1928

Cumberland 1958

Ivan Gogin, 2008-15