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fighting ships of the world

SOVIET NAVY (USSR)

CRUISERS

MAXIM GORKIY cruisers (project 26bis) (1940-1944)

Maxim Gorkiy 1941

Maxim Gorkiy 1941

Molotov 1942

Slava 1957

Name Yard No Builder Laid down Launched Comm Fate
Максим Горький <Maxim Gorkiy> 270 189 Ordzhonikidze Yd, Leningrad 20/12/1936 30/4/1938 25/10/1940 stricken 4/1959
Молотов <Molotov>, 8/1957- Слава <Slava> 329 198 Marti Yd, Nikolayev 14/1/1937 19/3/1939 14/6/1941 stricken 4/1972
Калинин <Kalinin> 7 199 Yd, Komsomolsk-on-Amur 12/6/1938 8/5/1942 31/12/1942 accommodation ship 2/1960
Каганович <Kaganovich>, 1946- Лазарь Каганович <Lazar` Kaganovich>, 8/1957- Петропавловск <Petropavlovsk> 8 199 Yd, Komsomolsk-on-Amur 28/8/1938 7/5/1944 6/12/1944 stricken 2/1960

 

Displacement standard, t

8048

Displacement full, t

9575 - 9882

Length, m

178.0 pp 187.0 wl 191.4 oa

Breadth, m

17.7

Draught, m

5.87 - 6.30 full load

No of shafts

2

Machinery

TV-7 geared steam turbines, 6 Yarrow-Normand boilers

Power, h. p.

110000

Max speed, kts

35

Fuel, t

oil 1660

Endurance, nm(kts)

Molotov: 3850(18)

others: 5100(17)

Armour, mm

belt: 70, bulkheads: 70, deck: 50, turrets: 70 - 50, barbettes: 70, CT: 150 - 50

Armament

Maxim Gorkiy, Molotov: 3 x 3 - 180/56 MK-3-180, 6 x 1 - 100/54 B-34, 9 x 1 - 45/43 21K, 4 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 1 ZK-1 catapult, 2 seaplanes (KOR-1), 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines

Kalinin: 3 x 3 - 180/56 MK-3-180, 8 x 1 - 76/52 34K, 6 x 1 - 45/43 21K, 10 x 1 - 37/63 70K, 6 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines

Kaganovich: 3 x 3 - 180/56 MK-3-180, 8 x 1 - 85/49 90K, 21 x 1 - 37/63 70K, 6 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines

Sensors Kaganovich: SG, type 281, 2x type 282, 2x type 285, type 291 radars

Complement

897

Ship project history: First large ships projected and constructed in the USSR. The project was designed with the technical help of Italy, in the same place the machinery for a lead ship was bought (earlier intended for cruiser Eugenio di Savoia). The ultimate variant of project 26 was approved 29/12/1934 and under it
2 ships, Kirov for Baltic Fleet and Voroshilov for Black Sea Fleet were laid down. In the end of 1937 the project 26-bis, differing by a little strengthened protection, the form of the fore superstructure, new fire control system and increased fuel stowage was approved. Under it 4 more ships were laid down: Maxim Gorkiy for Baltic Fleet, Molotov for Black Sea Fleet, Kalinin and Kaganovich for Pacific Fleet; last pair was completed already after a beginning of war with changed structure of antiaircraft arms.
   In a hull structure the construction of Italian cruiser Eugenio di Savoia was used. Changes have concerned basically ship ends: the bow was fulfilled without a bulb, stern had more thick form and was transom, instead of cruiser-type.

    Outwardly ships differed by the form of fore superstructure. On project 26 it was formed round a quarter-pod foremast with director arranged above which has been subject to vibration and covered the view from a bridge. Cruisers of project 26-bis received new tower-form superstructure reminding the Italian cruiser Montecuccoli, and the massive foremast has been changed by light tripod one.
    Protection of cruisers of project 26 included 50mm belt with 121m length and 3.4m height, covered by 50mm transverse bulkheads. 50mm main deck was connected with its upper edge. Turrets and barbettes from all directions were protected by 50mm plates, the conning tower had 150mm sides and 100mm roof. Steering gear compartment was covered by 20mm armour. In project 26-bis the protection scheme remained the same, but a thickness of a belt, transverse bulkheads, faces and roofs of turrets, barbettes have increased to 70mm, steering gear compartment to 30mm. By estimations, it ensured immunity zone against 152mm shells on distances from  97 to 122cables.
    The main artillery became the major feature of cruisers. Turrets were projected by means of Italians, placing of all guns in the common gun slide became corollary of that. In this connection, it is necessary to mark, that in the USSR cruisers of projects 26 and a 26-bis were listed as light when according to the international norms they should be referred to the heavy. Beacuse of shortage of new 100m AA guns Kalinin and Kaganovich did not receive planned AA guns, therefore they should receive 85 mm/52 guns instead, but however because of unavailability of these mounts on Far East, Kalinin at the commission was armed with 76 mm/55 34K guns.

   Machinery took places in eight compartments and it was packed in two autonomous echelons. Kirov had Italian-built Beluzzo turbines made by Ansaldo, for remaining they were made under the licence. A designed power was 110000hp, however Soviet-built turbines have appeared a little bit more powerful and more efficient than Italian. On trials Kirov has shown 35.94kts at 8604t and 113500hp; Voroshilov 36.72kts at 122500hp; Maxim Gorkiy 36.1kts at 8610t and 129750hp; Molotov 36.3kts at 133000hp; Kalinin 35kts at 109500hp (or at short term 36kts at 126900hp); Kaganovich has shown average 35.65kts speed.

Ship protection: Main 70mm belt (121x3.4m) protected space between end barbettes and was closed by 70mm bulkheads at ends and by 50mm flat main deck at upper edge. Turrets had 70mm faces and roofs and 50mm sides and rears, barbettes were protected by 70mm armour. CT had 150mm sides and 50mm roof. Steering gear compartment had box-shaped 30mm protection.

Modernizations: 12/1940, Molotov: + Redut-K radar

8/1941, Maxim Gorkiy: - 9 x 1 - 45/43, 1 catapult, 2 seaplanes; + 10 x 1 - 37/63 70K

late 1941, Molotov: - 3 x 1 - 45/43; + 4 x 1 - 37/63 70K

1942, Maxim Gorkiy: + 5 x 1 - 37/63 70K, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62

1942, Molotov: + 2 x 4 - 12.7/62

5/1943, Kalinin: - 8 x 1 - 76/52; + 8 x 1 - 85/49 90K

1943, Molotov: + 8 x 1 - 37/63 70K, catapult was replaced by ZK-1a (KOR-2 and Seafire)

1944, Molotov: + Mars-1 radar

1944, Kalinin: - 6 x 1 - 45/43; + 9 x 1 - 37/63 70K, SG, type 281, 2x type 282, 2x Yupiter-1 radars

8/1944, Maxim Gorkiy: + 2 x 1 - 37/63 70K, type 2x 282, type 284, 2x type 285, type 291 radars

1945, Kalinin, Kaganovich: +  ZK-2b catapult, 2 seaplanes (Be-4)

8/1945, Maxim Gorkiy: - 2 x 1 - 37/63

1/1946, Maxim Gorkiy: 3 x 3 - 180/58 MK-3-180, 6 x 1 - 100/56 B-34, 15 x 1 - 37/73 70K, 4 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines; 2x type 282, 284, 2x 285, 291 radars

1/1946, Molotov: 3 x 3 - 180/58 MK-3-180, 6 x 1 - 100/56 B-34, 6 x 1 - 45/46 21K, 12 x 1 - 37/73 70K, 4 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 1 ZK-1a catapult, 2 seaplanes (KOR-2, Seafire), 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines; Redut-K, Mars-1 radar

1/1946, Kalinin: 3 x 3 - 180/58 MK-3-180, 8 x 1 - 85/52 90K, 19 x 1 - 37/73 70K, 6 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, ZK-2b catapult, 2 seaplanes (Be-4), 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines; SG, type 281, 2x 282, 2x Yupiter-1 radars

1/1946, Kaganovich: 3 x 3 - 180/58 MK-3-180, 8 x 1 - 85/52 90K, 21 x 1 - 37/73 70K, 6 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, ZK-2b catapult, 2 seaplanes (Be-4), 4 DCT, 2 DCR (90), 100 mines; SG, type 281, 2x type 282, 2x type 285, type 291 radars

1/1955, Molotov: - 6 x 1 - 100/56 B-34, 6 x 1 - 45/46, 12 x 1 - 37/73, 2 x 4 - 12.7/62, 4 x 1 - 12.7/79, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 4 DCT, 2 DCR, Redut-K, Mars-1 radars, 1 catapult, 2 seaplanes; + 6 x 1 - 100/56 B-34-USMA, 11 x 2 - 37/70 V-11, Rif, Gyuys, Zalp, Yakor` radars

Naval service: Maxim Gorkiy 17/2/1956 was paid off; 18/4/1959 she was stricken and handed over on demolition. Slava 14/1/1959 was paid off and laid up, but 14/7/1960 was again returned into service; 3/8/1961 re-rated as TS. 4/4/1972 she was stricken and handed over on demolition. Kalinin 7/5/1956 was paid off and mothballed; 1/12/1957 she was returned to service, 6/2/1960 disarmed and converted to accommodation ship PKZ-21; 12/4/1963 she was written off from Fleet list and handed over on demolition. Petropavlovsk 6/2/1960 was stricken and handed over on demolition.

Kalinin 1945

 

© Ivan Gogin, 2009-15