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fighting ships of the world

REICHSMARINE / KRIEGSMARINE (GERMANY)

CRUISERS

DEUTSCHLAND heavy cruisers (1933-1936)

Deutschland 1933

Admiral Scheer 1940

Lützow 1941

Admiral Scheer 1942

Lützow 1945

Name Yard No Builder Laid down Launched Comp Fate
Deutschland, 1/1940- Lützow 219 Deutsche Werke, Kiel 5/2/1929 19/5/1931 1/4/1933 damaged 16/4/1945, never repaired, scuttled 4/5/1945
Admiral Scheer 123 KMW Wilhelmshaven 25/6/1931 1/4/1933 12/11/1934 sunk 9/4/1945
Admiral Graf Spee 125 KMW Wilhelmshaven 1/10/1932 30/6/1934 6/1/1936 scuttled 17/12/1939

 

Displacement standard, t

Deutschland: 10600

Admiral Scheer: 11550

Admiral Graf Spee: 12100

Displacement full, t

Deutschland: 14290

Admiral Scheer: 15180

Admiral Graf Spee: 16020

Length, m

181.7 wl 186.0 oa

Breadth, m

Deutschland: 20.7

Admiral Scheer: 21.3

Admiral Graf Spee: 21.7

Draught, m

5.80 mean 7.40 max

No of shafts

2

Machinery

8 MAN 2-stroke 9-cylinder double action diesels

Power, h. p.

56800

Max speed, kts

28

Fuel, t

Deutschland: diesel oil 2750

Admiral Scheer: diesel oil 2410

Admiral Graf Spee: diesel oil 2500

Endurance, nm(kts)

Deutschland: 17400(13), 10000(20)

Admiral Scheer: 9100(20)

Admiral Graf Spee: 8900(20)

Armour, mm

Deutschland: belt: 80 - 50, bulkheads: 60, deck: 18 + (45 - 30), anti-torpedo bulkhead: 45, main turrets: 150 - 85, barbettes: 125, shields: 10, CT: 150 - 50

Admiral Scheer: belt: 80 - 50, bulkheads: 50, deck: 18 + (40 - 20), anti-torpedo bulkhead: 40, main turrets: 150 - 85, barbettes: 125, shields: 10, CT: 150 - 50

Admiral Graf Spee: belt: 100, bulkheads: 100, deck: 18 + (70 - 20), anti-torpedo bulkhead: 40, main turrets: 150 - 85, barbettes: 125, shields: 10, CT: 150 - 50

Armament

Deutschland: 2 x 3 - 283/49 SK C/28, 8 x 1 - 149/52 SK C/28, 3 x 1 - 88/45 SK C/13, 2 x 4 - 500 TT

Admiral Scheer, Admiral Graf Spee: 2 x 3 - 283/49 SK C/28, 8 x 1 - 149/52 SK C/28, 3 x 2 - 88/72 SK C/31, 4 x 2 - 37/80 SK C/30, 8 x 1 - 20/65 C/30, 2 x 4 - 533 TT

Complement

1150

Ship project history: In the mid-twenties Germany could start replacement of old battleships Braunschweig, Hannover and Elsass which age has exceeded 20-year-old. Within Versailles limits (10000t displacement) it was possible to built either well defended monitor or coast defence battleship, or cruiser of "Washington" type, however a choice have made in favour of the ship intended for raider actions at ocean. Diesel machinery was applied by the capital ships for the first time and ensured a huge endurance, became main highlight of the project. Eight 9-cylinder  naturally aspirated two-stroke MAN diesels worked on two shafts. Choice of main calibre was dictated by Versailles limitations, but guns were new model C/28 (weight of shell of 300kg; a firing range of 36.4km) and placed in two triple turrets fore and aft. They were supplemented with eight 150mm guns C/28 in single shielded mounts. The unique ships, on artillery strength exceeding foreign heavy cruiser (2164kg side salvo weight) and having superiority in speed over contemporary battleships were as a result received. They were officially classified as armoured ships (Panzerschiffe), but are more known as "pocket battleships".

Ships were laid down as "armoured ships A-C". Hull was partially welded, with bulges at most length part, fulfilling role of underwater protection and covering the most part of armoured belt, fitted with an angle 12-13.5° outside. All three ships differed with protection. Main belt began before fore turret and ended behind forecastle break. On Deutschland it had 80mm thickness, tapering to 50mm at lower edge. On Admiral Scheer belt height has been increased, and 50mm plates were transferred upward. The scheme of belt arrangement on Admiral Graf Spee repeated Deutschland, but the thickness made 100mm. Fore and aft belt ends were closed by armour transverse bulkheads. There passed an armoured longitudinal bulkhead in parallel to main belt in 3.7m from centreline between upper and a main deck. Upper deck of all three ships had 18mm protection. Thickness of the main (armoured) deck on Deutschland was 30mm between longitudinal bulkheads and 45mm further to plating; on Scheer was 20 and 40mm respectively; on Admiral Graf Spee it was 20mm between longitudinal bulkheads, 40mm from the upper longitudinal bulkhead to anti-torpedo longitudinal bulkhead, and 30mm between it and belt. Fore end was protected by 17-18mm, and aft end by 45mm armour. Protection of turrets was so: 140mm faces, 80-60mm rears and 85-70mm sides.

Real standard displacement of the ships has exceeded officially declared on 17-25%. Because of diesel machinery "armoured ships" differed by high noisiness and vibration on full speed.

25/11/1939 ships were reclassified to heavy cruisers.

Ship protection (Deutschland): 12-13.5°-inclined main belt extended from point before fore turret to forecastle end and consisted from 2 strips of armor plates. Lower strip was 50mm thick and upper was 80mm abreast machinery and 60mm at ends. Main belt was closed by 60mm bulkheads. Additional 40mm longitudinal bulkhead placed in 3.7m from outer board protected volume between main and upper decks. 2m deep underwater protection included 45mm longitudinal bulkhead and bulges. Hull fwd from main belt had 18mm plating; 1m narrower belt with 30-40mm thickness protected aft part of ship. Flat main deck was 30mm thick between inner armored bulkheads and 45mm between these bulkheads and outer plating. Upper deck was 18mm over citadel and 10-7mm at ship ends. Main turrets had 140mm faces, 80-60mm inclined and 85-70mm vertical sides and 85mm roofs. Barbettes had 125mm protection. CT had 150mm sides and 50mm roof.

Ship protection (Admiral Scheer): 12-13.5°inclined main belt extended from point before fore turret to forecastle end and consisted from 2 strips of armor plates. Upper strip was 50mm thick and lower was 80mm abreast machinery, 65mm abreast fore turret and 50mm aft from aft turret. Main belt was closed by 50mm bulkheads. Additional 40mm longitudinal bulkhead placed in 3.7m from outer board protected volume between main and upper decks. 2m deep underwater protection included 40mm longitudinal bulkhead and bulges. Hull fwd from main belt had 17mm plating; 1m narrower belt with 40mm thickness protected aft part of ship. Flat main deck was 20mm thick between inner armored bulkheads and 40mm between these bulkheads and outer plating. Upper deck was 18mm over citadel and 10-7mm at ship ends. Main turrets had 140mm faces, 80-60mm inclined and 85-70mm vertical sides and 85mm roofs. Barbettes had 125mm protection. CT had 150mm sides and 50mm roof.

Ship protection (Admiral Graf Spee): 12-13.5°inclined 100mm main belt extended from point before fore turret to forecastle end. Main belt was closed by 100mm bulkheads. Additional 40mm longitudinal bulkhead placed in 3.7m from outer board protected volume between main and upper decks. 2m deep underwater protection included 40mm longitudinal bulkhead and bulges. Hull fwd from main belt had 17mm plating; 1m narrower belt with 45mm thickness protected aft part of ship. Flat main deck was 20mm thick between inner armored bulkheads, 40mm between these bulkheads and anti-torpedo bulkheads and 30mm between anti-torpedo bulkheads and outer plating; thickness of main deck over main magazines was 70mm. Upper deck was 18mm over citadel and 10-7mm at ship ends. Main turrets had 140mm faces, 80-60mm inclined and 85-70mm vertical sides and 85mm roofs. Barbettes had 125mm protection. CT had 150mm sides and 50mm roof.

Modernizations: 1933 - 1934, Deutschland: - 3 x 1 - 88/45, 2 x 4 - 500 TT; + 3 x 2 - 88/72 SK C/31, 4 x 2 - 37/80 SK C/30, 8 x 1 - 20/65 C/30, 2 x 4 - 533 TT

1934 - 1935, all: + 1 catapult, 2 seaplanes (He 60)

1937, Deutschland: + FuMG 39 Seetakt radar

1938, Admiral Graf Spee: - 3 x 2 - 88/72; + 3 x 2 - 105/60 SK C/33

1939, Deutschland: - FuMG 39 radar; + 2 x 1 - 20/65 C/30, FuMO 22 radar

1939, Admiral Scheer, Admiral Graf Spee: + 2 x 1 - 20/65 C/30, FuMO 22 radar

12/1939, Deutschland: - 10 x 1 - 20/65; + 14 x 1 - 20/65 C/38

1940, Lűtzow, Admiral Scheer: - 3 x 2 - 88/72; + 3 x 2 - 105/60 SK C/33, stem was reconstructed, length oa increased to 187.9 m

late 1940, Admiral Scheer: - 2 x 1 - 20/65, FuMO 22 radar; + FuMO 27 radar

1941, Admiral Scheer: - 8 x 1 - 20/65; + 2 x 4 - 20/65 C/38, 10 x 1 - 20/65 C/38, FuMO 26 radar

1942, Lűtzow: - FuMO 22 radar; + 2 x 4 - 20/65 C/38, 1 x 1 - 20/65 C/38, FuMO 26 radar

summer 1944, Admiral Scheer: + 2 x 4 - 20/65 C/38

8/1944, Lűtzow: - 2 x 2 - 37/80, 7 x 1 - 20/65; + 2 x 1 - 40/56 FlaK 28, 1 x 4 - 20/65 C/38, 6 x 2 - 20/65 C/38

9/1944, Lűtzow: + 2 x 1 - 40/56 FlaK 28

late 1944, Lűtzow: + 2 x 1 - 40/56 FlaK 28

late 1944, Admiral Scheer: - 4 x 2 - 37/80; + 4 x 1 - 40/56 FlaK 28

1945, Lűtzow: + 4 x 1 - 20/65 C/38

1945, Admiral Scheer: - 10 x 1 - 20/65; + 4 x 1 - 40/56 Flak 28, 2 x 4 - 20/65 C/38, 9 x 2 - 20/65 C/38

Naval service: All three actively acted at coast of Spain in 1936-1938; Deutschland 29/5/1937 was damaged by Republican aircraft. Admiral Graf Spee 13/12/1939 was damaged in battle against British cruisers Exeter, Ajax and Achilles at a mouth of La Plata, 17/12/1939 she was scuttled on shallow water at Montevideo to avoid capture by superior forces. Lützow 11/4/1940 was torpedoed by British submarine Spearfish in Kattegat, repair lasted 6 months, 13/6/1941 she was damaged by British torpedo bomber in Skagerrack and repaired 7 months, 3/7/1942 she was damaged as a result of navigating accident in Ufut-fiord and was under repair 3 months, 16/4/1945 she was hard damaged by British heavy bombers at Swinemünde, ran aground, but continued to use her artillery, was blown up by own crew 4/5/1945. Later she was salvaged by Soviet Navy in September 1946 and sunk as target 22/7/1947. Admiral Scheer was capsized and sunk 9/4/1945 during raid of British aircraft to Kiel after 5  direct hits of heavy air bombs.

 

Deutschland 1933

 

 

Admiral Graf Spee 1938

 

© Ivan Gogin, 2008-14